Information for Breeders

Angora Rabbit Breeding

​The first aim of Angora rabbit (in Turkish, Ankara tavşanı) breeding is wool production. Although it originated in Ankara (historically known as Angora), it became extinct in Turkey. Strong demand of producers about Angora rabbit breeding necessitated breeding this animal as a gene pool and focusing on breeding countrywide. Angora rabbit wool which is used in textile industry is imported. Recently, Angora rabbit farming has begun again by these imported animals. However, Angora rabbit farming has been performed throughout the world for long years. Angora rabbit was taken to French and England from Anatolia by English seamen in 1723. In Germany, Angora rabbit firstly reared in 1777. The main countries which produce angora wool are China, France, Hungary, Argentina, Chili, Germany and Brazil. The main countries which process angora wool are Italy, Japan, Germany, France, India and Chili. It is estimated that Angora rabbit wool production all around the world is around 8000-12000 tons. China is the main source country for raw Angora wool with the production of 90%. The price for Angora wool changes with regard to the length, softness, cleanness, thinness of the hair.


The wool which is extracted from Angora rabbit is defined as “Angora wool”. It is blended with sheep wool in order to increase elasticity, to prevent fluttering around and to decrease production expenses. Angora wool which is soft, thin with isolation ability is commonly used for manufacturing of gloves, hats, hats, blankets and fabrics, etc. the length of fiber of Angora wool is 10-15 cm. the thinness of it is 12 micro meters in female ones, and 11 micro meters in male ones. There is loss at the rate of 6% after being purifying from dirt. The loss is at the rate of 50% in sheep.


Angora rabbit has a short neck, a round head with medium size. Its ears are erected, two sides of them are open and they have tufts. The inner parts of the ears are covered by thin, short and rare hairs. The outer part of the ears is covered by silky long thin hairs. White rabbits have red eyes. Their legs are thin and long and covered by long hairs. The bones are thin and strong. Average live weight is 3,5-4 kg. Live weight of mature females is more than male ones. These animals reach up to sexual maturity when they are at the age of 3-4 month. However, the most suitable period for mating is the age of 7-8 month.  The average size of the litter varies between 5 or 6 baby rabbits. On an average, 3 baby rabbits remain alive during weaning period. The babies wean at the age of 6 weeks. The average life span of Angora rabbits is 4 years.


Angora rabbit has some breeds such as English, German, Russian and Tanghang. Also, it has 12 different colors. However, the most preferred one is white Angora rabbit which is albino. When comparing with other breeds of rabbits, Angora rabbit needs more attention, therefore wool production is higher in the countries where labor force is low.


When the rabbits reach up the sexual maturity, they have to be taken in personal cages. In small cages, the rabbit has to continuously stand up on its hind legs within the same position, because there is no much comfort for it in the cage. As a result, foot wounds occur. Felting of the wool increases in small cages. The suitable size of the cage is 70-90X60X45 cm. If there is no bedding/litter in the cage flooring, wooden grid must be used in order to avoid wounds resulted from flooring. Optimum width of the grid is 25-30 mm, the distances of grid bar is 10-12 mm. The flooring of the cage must be formed in order to keep animal away from urine and excretion. The hairs which stick around the cage must be cleaned by flame thrower. However, galvanize of the grid bar is corrupted by the impact of the temperature. The ambient temperature for rabbits must be 15-20 centigrade. The amount and quality of the wool decreases if the temperature reaches to more than 30 centigrade.


A rabbit consumes average 170 grams of feed in a day. The keratin within angora hair is rich in sulfurous amino acids. Therefore, the amount of sulfurous amino acid must be high in the rations of Angora rabbit. The content of the rabbit feed must contain 16-17% of raw protein, 16,5% of raw cellulose, 2-3% of raw fat and 2750 Kcal/kg digestible energy. The amount of sulfurous amino acids is 0.7-0.8%.


Angora rabbits are reared for their wool producing ability rather than their reproduction capacity, so their breeding and lactation conditions are lower than other rabbits. The hand-mating method is used in rabbits is and the reproduction efficiency of them are lower than (50%) other rabbit breeds. Long hairs cause increase of embryonic deaths in females, decrease in lactation and feed consumption, decrease in the sexual activity of males and spermatozoid deformations.   The ovulation in rabbits occurs as a result of arousal. The rate of conception increases when the females are mated in shearing day and also the rate of embryonic mortality decreases. In summer; fertility, sperm volume and motility decrease. Hormone (HCG, PMSG) can be given and artificial insemination procedure can be used in order to increase reproduction capacity. Also, break for mating can be taken in considerably hot days of the summer. After the age of three, wool production and reproduction ability start to decrease quickly. There is a reverse relationship between the amount of wool production and reproduction performance.


Angora rabbits firstly start to be sheared at the age of 2 month. Then, they are sheared quarterly. After an annual four shears, 800-900 grams of wool are provided from one animal. There are many environmental factors which affect the wool productivity.  These factors are as follows: gender, age, live weight, season, pregnancy, shearing interval, etc. The wool productivity of the female rabbits is higher than male rabbits by the rate of 15-20%. Pregnancy and lactation minimize wool productivity by 1/3. The wool productivity of castrated male rabbits increases by 15-20%, their feed consumption decreases and they become quiet and calm. Therefore, they have to be sheltered within groups.


The hairs which have the best quality are provided during the third shearing when the rabbit is 9-month. The female rabbits have to be used in production period as long as possible and their breeding efficiency must be decreased.  The number of parent male rabbits must be 5% of total animal number. Wool productivity during summer is lower than the productivity during autumn and winter. The rabbit can be shorn by an experienced person within half an hour. The wool is provided by shearing scissors, electrical hand shears or by only hand. The reasons for preferring shearing equipment are as follows: The animals do not get stressed. These kinds of equipment protect against cold better. Breeders need less labor and time. More wool is provided. The disadvantage of shearing performed by shearing scissors is to need more time and to have more clipped wool. The animal is naked while it is shorn by hand, so its resistance against cold decreases.  3-5 mm of hair must be untouched while shearing by shearing tools. Also, the method of shearing by hand is banned in some countries for animal welfare. Recently, depilatory remedies have been used instead of shearing by hand. In this method, these kinds of medicines are natural plant extracts (logodendron), they are given to animals in the form of feed additives.  The wools are grouped in terms of their quality and stored and kept away from the moth. The lengths, thinness, softness, felting of the wool are main factors which determine the quality of it.


The shearing protects the rabbits against the cold. After shearing (5-6 weeks later), increase in the length of the wool avoids excessive metabolic temperature. If ambient temperature after shearing is lower than 20 centigrade, it results in a shock period, and then feed consumption increases suddenly. It forces the metabolism and causes blood circulation disorders. Some chronic diseases become acute and deaths occur. 50% and more of the deaths seen in Angora rabbits occur during the first week after shearing. Therefore, the shearing of the rabbits must be programmed properly in the regions which struggle against hard winter conditions.   Also, gastrointestinal disorders resulted from Trichobezoar/hairballs are widely seen in the rabbits. The animal swallows its own hairs and it causes accumulation of hair. These animals cannot eat enough feed, so they cannot protect their body temperatures.  Also, the accumulation of hairs blocks up the stomach and generally causes the death of the animal. No feed must be given to animals once a week and they must be fed by only dried grass and water in order to avoid accumulation of hairs. Also, it is known that pineapple juice and  papaya are effective for Trichobezoar/hairballs.

Angora Rabbit Breeding

​The first aim of Angora rabbit (in Turkish, Ankara tavşanı) breeding is wool production. Although it originated in Ankara (historically known as Angora), it became extinct in Turkey. Strong demand of producers about Angora rabbit breeding necessitated breeding this animal as a gene pool and focusing on breeding countrywide. Angora rabbit wool which is used in textile industry is imported. Recently, Angora rabbit farming has begun again by these imported animals. However, Angora rabbit farming has been performed throughout the world for long years. Angora rabbit was taken to French and England from Anatolia by English seamen in 1723. In Germany, Angora rabbit firstly reared in 1777. The main countries which produce angora wool are China, France, Hungary, Argentina, Chili, Germany and Brazil. The main countries which process angora wool are Italy, Japan, Germany, France, India and Chili. It is estimated that Angora rabbit wool production all around the world is around 8000-12000 tons. China is the main source country for raw Angora wool with the production of 90%. The price for Angora wool changes with regard to the length, softness, cleanness, thinness of the hair.


The wool which is extracted from Angora rabbit is defined as “Angora wool”. It is blended with sheep wool in order to increase elasticity, to prevent fluttering around and to decrease production expenses. Angora wool which is soft, thin with isolation ability is commonly used for manufacturing of gloves, hats, hats, blankets and fabrics, etc. the length of fiber of Angora wool is 10-15 cm. the thinness of it is 12 micro meters in female ones, and 11 micro meters in male ones. There is loss at the rate of 6% after being purifying from dirt. The loss is at the rate of 50% in sheep.


Angora rabbit has a short neck, a round head with medium size. Its ears are erected, two sides of them are open and they have tufts. The inner parts of the ears are covered by thin, short and rare hairs. The outer part of the ears is covered by silky long thin hairs. White rabbits have red eyes. Their legs are thin and long and covered by long hairs. The bones are thin and strong. Average live weight is 3,5-4 kg. Live weight of mature females is more than male ones. These animals reach up to sexual maturity when they are at the age of 3-4 month. However, the most suitable period for mating is the age of 7-8 month.  The average size of the litter varies between 5 or 6 baby rabbits. On an average, 3 baby rabbits remain alive during weaning period. The babies wean at the age of 6 weeks. The average life span of Angora rabbits is 4 years.


Angora rabbit has some breeds such as English, German, Russian and Tanghang. Also, it has 12 different colors. However, the most preferred one is white Angora rabbit which is albino. When comparing with other breeds of rabbits, Angora rabbit needs more attention, therefore wool production is higher in the countries where labor force is low.


When the rabbits reach up the sexual maturity, they have to be taken in personal cages. In small cages, the rabbit has to continuously stand up on its hind legs within the same position, because there is no much comfort for it in the cage. As a result, foot wounds occur. Felting of the wool increases in small cages. The suitable size of the cage is 70-90X60X45 cm. If there is no bedding/litter in the cage flooring, wooden grid must be used in order to avoid wounds resulted from flooring. Optimum width of the grid is 25-30 mm, the distances of grid bar is 10-12 mm. The flooring of the cage must be formed in order to keep animal away from urine and excretion. The hairs which stick around the cage must be cleaned by flame thrower. However, galvanize of the grid bar is corrupted by the impact of the temperature. The ambient temperature for rabbits must be 15-20 centigrade. The amount and quality of the wool decreases if the temperature reaches to more than 30 centigrade.


A rabbit consumes average 170 grams of feed in a day. The keratin within angora hair is rich in sulfurous amino acids. Therefore, the amount of sulfurous amino acid must be high in the rations of Angora rabbit. The content of the rabbit feed must contain 16-17% of raw protein, 16,5% of raw cellulose, 2-3% of raw fat and 2750 Kcal/kg digestible energy. The amount of sulfurous amino acids is 0.7-0.8%.


Angora rabbits are reared for their wool producing ability rather than their reproduction capacity, so their breeding and lactation conditions are lower than other rabbits. The hand-mating method is used in rabbits is and the reproduction efficiency of them are lower than (50%) other rabbit breeds. Long hairs cause increase of embryonic deaths in females, decrease in lactation and feed consumption, decrease in the sexual activity of males and spermatozoid deformations.   The ovulation in rabbits occurs as a result of arousal. The rate of conception increases when the females are mated in shearing day and also the rate of embryonic mortality decreases. In summer; fertility, sperm volume and motility decrease. Hormone (HCG, PMSG) can be given and artificial insemination procedure can be used in order to increase reproduction capacity. Also, break for mating can be taken in considerably hot days of the summer. After the age of three, wool production and reproduction ability start to decrease quickly. There is a reverse relationship between the amount of wool production and reproduction performance.


Angora rabbits firstly start to be sheared at the age of 2 month. Then, they are sheared quarterly. After an annual four shears, 800-900 grams of wool are provided from one animal. There are many environmental factors which affect the wool productivity.  These factors are as follows: gender, age, live weight, season, pregnancy, shearing interval, etc. The wool productivity of the female rabbits is higher than male rabbits by the rate of 15-20%. Pregnancy and lactation minimize wool productivity by 1/3. The wool productivity of castrated male rabbits increases by 15-20%, their feed consumption decreases and they become quiet and calm. Therefore, they have to be sheltered within groups.


The hairs which have the best quality are provided during the third shearing when the rabbit is 9-month. The female rabbits have to be used in production period as long as possible and their breeding efficiency must be decreased.  The number of parent male rabbits must be 5% of total animal number. Wool productivity during summer is lower than the productivity during autumn and winter. The rabbit can be shorn by an experienced person within half an hour. The wool is provided by shearing scissors, electrical hand shears or by only hand. The reasons for preferring shearing equipment are as follows: The animals do not get stressed. These kinds of equipment protect against cold better. Breeders need less labor and time. More wool is provided. The disadvantage of shearing performed by shearing scissors is to need more time and to have more clipped wool. The animal is naked while it is shorn by hand, so its resistance against cold decreases.  3-5 mm of hair must be untouched while shearing by shearing tools. Also, the method of shearing by hand is banned in some countries for animal welfare. Recently, depilatory remedies have been used instead of shearing by hand. In this method, these kinds of medicines are natural plant extracts (logodendron), they are given to animals in the form of feed additives.  The wools are grouped in terms of their quality and stored and kept away from the moth. The lengths, thinness, softness, felting of the wool are main factors which determine the quality of it.


The shearing protects the rabbits against the cold. After shearing (5-6 weeks later), increase in the length of the wool avoids excessive metabolic temperature. If ambient temperature after shearing is lower than 20 centigrade, it results in a shock period, and then feed consumption increases suddenly. It forces the metabolism and causes blood circulation disorders. Some chronic diseases become acute and deaths occur. 50% and more of the deaths seen in Angora rabbits occur during the first week after shearing. Therefore, the shearing of the rabbits must be programmed properly in the regions which struggle against hard winter conditions.   Also, gastrointestinal disorders resulted from Trichobezoar/hairballs are widely seen in the rabbits. The animal swallows its own hairs and it causes accumulation of hair. These animals cannot eat enough feed, so they cannot protect their body temperatures.  Also, the accumulation of hairs blocks up the stomach and generally causes the death of the animal. No feed must be given to animals once a week and they must be fed by only dried grass and water in order to avoid accumulation of hairs. Also, it is known that pineapple juice and  papaya are effective for Trichobezoar/hairballs.

Quail Breeding

​Quail breeding is recommended as a practical and feasible option to meet animal protein need in developing countries. Because, their body structures are small, therefore it is possible to keep hundreds of quails in a small area and also constructing barns and buildings and provision of necessary equipment is cheap. Quail breeding is less affected by economic crisis since breeding period of butchery quails is 6 weeks and they consume small amount of feed in this period. In addition to these advantages, quails have a privileged place in case of breeding for commercial purposes under family and village conditions. Nevertheless, quails differ from poultry and sheep in that they are not domestic animals and they don’t stay at the place they kept. It is more appropriate to keep them in closed areas since they are free birds. It is known the their egg cures asthma if it is consumed without cooking. Quail meet gains an increasing popularity for taste of meals and it is a good alternative for animal protein with low oil and cholesterol level.

Quail Breeding

​Quail breeding is recommended as a practical and feasible option to meet animal protein need in developing countries. Because, their body structures are small, therefore it is possible to keep hundreds of quails in a small area and also constructing barns and buildings and provision of necessary equipment is cheap. Quail breeding is less affected by economic crisis since breeding period of butchery quails is 6 weeks and they consume small amount of feed in this period. In addition to these advantages, quails have a privileged place in case of breeding for commercial purposes under family and village conditions. Nevertheless, quails differ from poultry and sheep in that they are not domestic animals and they don’t stay at the place they kept. It is more appropriate to keep them in closed areas since they are free birds. It is known the their egg cures asthma if it is consumed without cooking. Quail meet gains an increasing popularity for taste of meals and it is a good alternative for animal protein with low oil and cholesterol level.

Ostrich Breeding

​The rapid increase in world population reveals the importance of nutrition. Therefore, there is a need for seeking for new resources and researches on alternative foodstuffs. Human beings always seek for innovations and want to produce the best. This may be possible through scientific studies and application of technological progresses.


In parallel with scientific and technological improvements within 20th century, animal husbandry activities made significant progresses. Animal origin proteins are necessary for healthy and sufficient nourishment of people.

​ 

Ostrich breeding is an alternative animal origin protein source in order to meet animal origin protein deficit in our country. Therefore, ostrich breeding has been an economical poultry animal at all aspects.


Despite the fact that the ostrich is a bird, it cannot fly and instead it runs away and walks when it is threatened. The ostriches are generally found in hot and droughty interior areas of the eastern and southern Africa. It is known that the ostriches lived in the areas extending from Sahara to Middle East deserts during the ancient times.


The beak of the ostrich is approximately 13-14 cm and it has no tooth in its mouth. It has small head and long neck. His height reaches 2-2,8 meters long. He has long and powerful legs. His head, neck and legs are thin. The wings and the body are magnificent and feathery.  It has no breastbone. Live weight of mature ones is 110-160 kg. The ones which roam around freely in the nature are seen in eastern and southern Africa.   They can run at average speed of 60 km/hour when necessary; also the speed of 90km/hour has been even recorded. They protect themselves by their powerful legs and their beaks. They live for about 20-30 years. They can be used as breeding animals for 20-30 years with respect to their care and feeding conditions.


The domestication of the ostriches started when their feathers were used in women dresses. Today, they are breeded in several farms located in South Africa, USA, Canada, Australia, China, Zimbabwe, Israel, Namibia, Botswana and in some countries in Europe for their meat, feather and skin.


Ostrich production activities which can provide breeding animals are carried out in the Faculty of Agriculture under Uludağ University and in the provinces of Kırşehir and Antalya. However, it is a very new branch in terms of animal husbandry. The number of curious producers has been increasing day by day.

Ostrich Breeding

​The rapid increase in world population reveals the importance of nutrition. Therefore, there is a need for seeking for new resources and researches on alternative foodstuffs. Human beings always seek for innovations and want to produce the best. This may be possible through scientific studies and application of technological progresses.


In parallel with scientific and technological improvements within 20th century, animal husbandry activities made significant progresses. Animal origin proteins are necessary for healthy and sufficient nourishment of people.

​ 

Ostrich breeding is an alternative animal origin protein source in order to meet animal origin protein deficit in our country. Therefore, ostrich breeding has been an economical poultry animal at all aspects.


Despite the fact that the ostrich is a bird, it cannot fly and instead it runs away and walks when it is threatened. The ostriches are generally found in hot and droughty interior areas of the eastern and southern Africa. It is known that the ostriches lived in the areas extending from Sahara to Middle East deserts during the ancient times.


The beak of the ostrich is approximately 13-14 cm and it has no tooth in its mouth. It has small head and long neck. His height reaches 2-2,8 meters long. He has long and powerful legs. His head, neck and legs are thin. The wings and the body are magnificent and feathery.  It has no breastbone. Live weight of mature ones is 110-160 kg. The ones which roam around freely in the nature are seen in eastern and southern Africa.   They can run at average speed of 60 km/hour when necessary; also the speed of 90km/hour has been even recorded. They protect themselves by their powerful legs and their beaks. They live for about 20-30 years. They can be used as breeding animals for 20-30 years with respect to their care and feeding conditions.


The domestication of the ostriches started when their feathers were used in women dresses. Today, they are breeded in several farms located in South Africa, USA, Canada, Australia, China, Zimbabwe, Israel, Namibia, Botswana and in some countries in Europe for their meat, feather and skin.


Ostrich production activities which can provide breeding animals are carried out in the Faculty of Agriculture under Uludağ University and in the provinces of Kırşehir and Antalya. However, it is a very new branch in terms of animal husbandry. The number of curious producers has been increasing day by day.

Goose Breeding

​Increasing consumption of protein of animal origin is possible through cheap production. Therefore, poultry meat is a source of protein of animal origin and production of such meat can be cheaper. Turkey is a self-sufficient country in terms of water resources and it is an advantageous country for goose breeding.


In our country, goose breeding is mainly carried out in the eastern provinces such as Kars, Erzurum, Ağrı and Van. Breeding activities are completely performed under village conditions, so it meets only needs of the families. Therefore, it is impossible to come across with a producer who makes money by selling goose meat. Although goose breeding takes an important place in many countries throughout the world, it is not widespread in our country.


Goose breeding is not as popular as other poultry animal breeding in our country and in the world. The main reason of this is reproductive ability of goose is behind other poultry animals. According to data of Turkish Statistical Institute, goose stock of our country is approximately 1.000.000.


Goose meat is a healthy meat with its high nutritive value, low fat and cholesterol content and many kinds of meals can be cooked by using it. Goose liver has not been known well in our country yet. However, it is very popular throughout the world and consumed much in luxury restaurants as a precious dish. For example, the importance of goose liver in France is very high and goose liver is imported from the countries such as Poland, Israel, Russia and Hungary. Apart from that, goose fat meets cooking oil needs of the villagers of Kars and surrounding villages during the winter.


The countries in which goose breeding is widespread are as follows: England, Canada, USA, China, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, Bulgaria and Russia. The geese are mainly reared for their livers and feathers.

Goose Breeding

​Increasing consumption of protein of animal origin is possible through cheap production. Therefore, poultry meat is a source of protein of animal origin and production of such meat can be cheaper. Turkey is a self-sufficient country in terms of water resources and it is an advantageous country for goose breeding.


In our country, goose breeding is mainly carried out in the eastern provinces such as Kars, Erzurum, Ağrı and Van. Breeding activities are completely performed under village conditions, so it meets only needs of the families. Therefore, it is impossible to come across with a producer who makes money by selling goose meat. Although goose breeding takes an important place in many countries throughout the world, it is not widespread in our country.


Goose breeding is not as popular as other poultry animal breeding in our country and in the world. The main reason of this is reproductive ability of goose is behind other poultry animals. According to data of Turkish Statistical Institute, goose stock of our country is approximately 1.000.000.


Goose meat is a healthy meat with its high nutritive value, low fat and cholesterol content and many kinds of meals can be cooked by using it. Goose liver has not been known well in our country yet. However, it is very popular throughout the world and consumed much in luxury restaurants as a precious dish. For example, the importance of goose liver in France is very high and goose liver is imported from the countries such as Poland, Israel, Russia and Hungary. Apart from that, goose fat meets cooking oil needs of the villagers of Kars and surrounding villages during the winter.


The countries in which goose breeding is widespread are as follows: England, Canada, USA, China, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, Bulgaria and Russia. The geese are mainly reared for their livers and feathers.

Partridge Breeding

​Partridge is one of ornamental birds that has 14 sub-species and an important commercial potential. Meet of partridges kept for hunting, meet production and egg is very delicious and oil level is very low. Due to easiness of feeding and keeping, it is an appropriate bird for people who want to keep ornamental birds. Partridge is produced in many countries such as USA, France, Spain, Hungary and Czechoslovakia and these birds are hunted in special hunting places. Ecological conditions of our country is appropriate to establish hunting areas and there is only one hunting place in our country in Nazilli-Alamut village. In 1951 partridges were sent from İzmir to USA and adaptation studies have been carried out in 4 different areas (New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Nevada States) and there birds were hunted in these places as Alectoris graeca kleini. Most common specie is redlegged partridge in our country. While partridges have been in wild life as flocks 5-10 years ago, today they are decreasing in number and hunters can not find partridges to hunt. It is considered that degradation of natural balance caused by unconscious hunting and chemicals used to increase productivity in agriculture leads to decrease in partridge population.

Partridge Breeding

​Partridge is one of ornamental birds that has 14 sub-species and an important commercial potential. Meet of partridges kept for hunting, meet production and egg is very delicious and oil level is very low. Due to easiness of feeding and keeping, it is an appropriate bird for people who want to keep ornamental birds. Partridge is produced in many countries such as USA, France, Spain, Hungary and Czechoslovakia and these birds are hunted in special hunting places. Ecological conditions of our country is appropriate to establish hunting areas and there is only one hunting place in our country in Nazilli-Alamut village. In 1951 partridges were sent from İzmir to USA and adaptation studies have been carried out in 4 different areas (New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Nevada States) and there birds were hunted in these places as Alectoris graeca kleini. Most common specie is redlegged partridge in our country. While partridges have been in wild life as flocks 5-10 years ago, today they are decreasing in number and hunters can not find partridges to hunt. It is considered that degradation of natural balance caused by unconscious hunting and chemicals used to increase productivity in agriculture leads to decrease in partridge population.

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