Fish Farming

Water Quality Criteria for Trout Farming

PROPERTIES

VALUES

DETAILS

Water Temperature

0 C

9-17

 

12-16 (Optimal)

-

Ph

6.5-8.0

 

around 7

(Light Acidity 6.5) (optimal for intensive culture)

Oxygen (O2)

9.2-11.5mg O2/lt

At the degree of saturation

Ammonia (NH3)

1.   0.1 or 0.02 mg/lt

 

0.005 mg/lt

-

 

For fingerling trouts

Nitrite (NO2)

1.   0.1 mg/lt

2.   0.2 mg/lt

 

(=0.03 or 0.06 mg N-NO2/lt)

 

0.012 mg N-NO2/lt

For soft water

 

For hard water

 

For closed systems

Nitrate (NO3)

100 mg/lt

 

(25-35 mg N-NO3/lt)

For closed systems

Chlorine (Cl2)

0.01-0.03 mg/lt

 

Chloride (Cl-)

50 mg/lt

For egg hatching

Hydrogen Sulfur

(H2S)

0.002 mg/lt

 

Carbon dioxide

(CO2)

25 mg/lt

 

10 mg/lt

Should not exceed these values if possible

Ozone (O3)

0.02 mg/lt

-

Nitrogen (N2)

110 %

Total maximal gas pressure at saturation

Floating and subsiding materials

15-80 mg/lt

-

Copper

0.006mg/lt

 

0.03 mg/lt

 

ABG 2=100mg/lt CaCO3

For soft water

 

 

For hard water

Zinc

0.005-0.04 mg/lt

Depending on water hardness

Iron

1.   0.3 mg/lt

 

0.1 mg/lt

-

 

For fingerling

Lead

1.   0.3 0.01-0.03 mg/lt

-


 

Mercury

0.005 mg/lt

 

0.0002 mg/lt

-

 

-

Cadmium

0.0004 mg/lt

 

0.003 mg/lt

For soft water (ABG<2)

 

For hard water (ABG>2)

Chrome

0.01 mg/lt

 

0.05 mg/lt

Hexavalent

 

(Trivalent)

Cyanide

0.005-0.25 mg7LT

-

Arsenide

0.01-0.5 mg/lt

-

Barium

5 mg/lt

-

Aluminum

0.1 mg/lt

-

River flow rate

0.005-0.03 mg/lt

-

Turbidity

10 JTU

(=Jackson-Turbidity)

 

Jackson turbidity unit

Water Quality Criteria for Marine Fish Culture

Water Criteria

Sea bream

Sea bass

Notes

Properties

Larva

Mature

Larva

Mature

 

Oxygen mg/lit

5-6

4-8

5-6

4-8

Should not be lower than 4mg/lit, but they can    survive    up    to

2mg/lit

Salinity

‰0

Natural Sea Water

36-

38

5-44

26-38

0-60

During larva period between

0-20 days, the salinity of natural sea water is decreased by ‰26. The aim is to ensure

that the air sac is developed better and the survival rate is higher. Sea bass can survive at %00-64 salinity while sea bream at %0-42 salinity.

‰26 should be the lower limit for larva culture.

Temperature °C

16-20

20-25

14-20

20-25

Temperature change in larval period is an important issue. There should not be sudden temperature changes. The best feed assessment temperature for mature fish is between 20 and 25 °C. Feed intake stops under 6°C. Fish cannot survive less than 1 C° and feed intake tends to stop over

28 C°.

PH

7.5-8.0

7.5-8.0

7.5-8.2

7.3-8.3

Should not be less than 7.

Free carbon mg/lit

 

Max.

20

 

 

Ammonia NH3 mg/lit

0.01-0.05

0.02-0.05

0.01-0.05

0.02-0.05

 

Nitrogen

Ammonia(N4++H

3) ppm

0.2-0.3

 

Nitrite ,NO2 mg/lit

0.001-

0.02

0.02

0.013-

0.016

0.02

Should not be more than

0.02. 2 mg/lit is the lethal dose for larva.

Nitrate NO3 mg/lit

0.08-1.1

0.1-1.0

0.062-

0.068

0.1-1.0

 


 

Phosphate mg/lit    0

.1-1.0

 

Silicate mg/lit

2-5

 

Total Iron mg/lit     M

ax 0.1

 

Kükürt mg/lit         M

ax 1.0

 

Suspended Solid    M Matter mg/lit

ax 2.0

Water used in larval period should be clear and not contain any suspension matter. Mechanical filter systems should be well-established.

Turbidity ITU

8.5-12

 

Hydrocarbons

No coloration should be observed on the water surface.

Fecal Coliform at 100 ml

Maximum 1000

 

Chlorine mg/lit

Maximum 0.02

 

Total Mercury mg/lit

Maximum 0.05

 

Cadmium (Cd)

mg/lit

Maximum 0.01

 

Lead (pb) mg/lit

Maximum 0.1

 

Chrome (Cr+6)

Maximum 0.05

 

Arsenic (As)

mg/lit

Maximum 0.05

 

Copper (Cu) mg/lit

Maximum 0.02

 

Zinc (Zn) mg/lit

Maximum 0.1

 

PESTICIDES

DDT mg/lit

Maximum 0.025

 

 

 

 

 

The values are the same for sea bass and sea bream. They should be maintained at minimum levels particularly during the larval period between 0 and

40 days and later until the uncaging period (at 0.5-

1 gram). Fish culture is not negatively affected in the following periods if the specified amounts are not exceeded.

Aldrin mg/lit

Maximum 0.01

Dieldrin mg/lit

Maximum 2

2.4 DEP mg/lit

Maximum 1

BHC mg/lit

Maximum 0.03

Endrin mg/lit

Maximum 0.08

Heptachlor mg/lit

0.03

Pentachlorophen ol mg/lit

0.01


Water Quality Criteria for Carp Farming

PROPERTIES

VALUES

DETAILS

Water Temperature 0 C

18-24

optimal is 16-26

pH

6.5-8.5

 

Oxygen (O2)

5-9 mg/lt

should not be lower than 4 mg/lt

Ammonia (NH3)

0.02 mg/lt

 

Nitrite (NO2)

0.06-0.1 mg/lt

 

Chlorine (Cl2)

0.02 mg/lt

 

Acid Binding Power (ABP)

0.5-1.5

and higher

 

Mg CaCO3;; 50 mg

CaCO3=1ABG

 

Copper

0.005 mg/lt

 

Zinc

0.3 mg/lt

 

Iron

0.9 mg/lt

 

Lead

0.1 mg/lt

-

Cadmium

0.004 mg/lt

 

0.012 mg/lt

for soft water

 

for hard water

Nickel

0.5 mg/lt

-

Arsen

0.001 mg/lt

-

Cobalt

0.1 mg/lt

-

Manganese

0.1 mg/lt

-

Petroleum (Gas oil)

0.6 mg/lt

-

Diesel Oil

0.04 mg/lt

-

Normal Petroleum

0.3 mg/lt

-

Gasoline

0.005 mg/lt

-

Turbidity

25 JTU

(=Jackson-Turbidity)

 

Jackson turbidity unit

​​

Trout Farming

​Trout which prefers clear, clean, cool and oxygen-rich waters in terms of living environment, is among the fish recognised by our people especially with its delicious meat. Although rainbow trout and the brook trout (salvelinus fortinalis) were brought to Europe from North America almost in the same years, 120 years ago, due to its features appropriate to culture conditions, rainbow trout farming has shown a rapid increase and today has become an industry.  The  appropriate  features  of  rainbow  trout  for  aquaculture  can  be  specified  as follows:


- Besides its feature of adjusting to environmental conditions very well, the rainbow trout is relatively resistant to high temperatures.


- It actively has its feed and this facilitates feeding; and it grows well as its feed conversion rate is high.


- It has a short incubation period in higher spring temperatures compared to other trout species such as brook trout (salvelinus fortinalis), brown trout (salmo trutta fario).


Seabass and Seabream Farming

​Sea bass and sea bream are more common in the southern shores and in the Aegean coasts of our country. Generally dispersed in tropical, semi-tropical and temperate zones, sea bream lives in sandy-muddy and muddy environments. It is also very common in the river mouths and lagoons. It feeds especially on crustaceans and molluscs.


The back of sea bass is gray or greenish black, its sides are silvery and its belly is white. There are 1 or 2 stickles on its opercula and black spots at the top. Its mouth is wide, the teeth located on the palate and tongue.   Its body is long and thin. Its length which can reach 1 m is 50 cm on average and its weight can reach 12 kg.

 

Sea breams take different local names according to their weights in Turkey. Those with a weight of 30-50 grams are called thin lidaki, those with a weight of 100 grams are called lidaki, those with a weight of 100-180 grams are called coarse lidaki and those with

200 grams and over are called sea bream. It has an oval body, a large head, a blunt nose and prominent lips. There is a V-shaped strap between the eyes. Its back is gray and dark blue in colour. The average length of a sea bream which can reach 70 cm at maximum is 25-40 cm.

 

Sea bream and sea bass grow best at temperatures between 22-24 °C; they can live in lethal temperature ranges, but the temperature range they can survive is 3-34 0C. Salinity value   is   between   05-040%.   Appropriate   dissolved   oxygen   level   in   aquaculture   is approximately 7-8 mg / l. Although they live in shallow waters (0.5 to 9 m) in summer, they migrate to the deeper (35-40 m) waters in winter.


Carp Farming

​Carp, which is a type of economic importance in temperate climates, is very suitable for aquaculture since it favours heat and is resistant to cold. It needs a small amount of oxygen, is not sensitive to the processes such as size grading, being caught with trawl net and weighing, and not injured easily during the cultivation. It easily adjusts itself to changes in water temperature between 4-30°C in a short time period.

Carp culture, also known as Mirror Carp, is the cultured form of common carp. It is a species having a back higher than the common carp; it is stocky, large part of its body is scaleless, its scales scattered around different parts of the body; it is round, fast-growing and well-adjusted to the artificial cultivation conditions and its feed assessment is high.


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